Objective: Hypospadias is defined as incomplete closure of the penile structures during embryogenesis. Surgical correction induces various complications, including urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of UCF in children undergoing hypospadias repair under caudal anesthesia.
Method: The medical records of children undergoing hypospadias repair between January 2013 and July 2018 were included. Data on patients age, body weight, height, type of repair procedure, type of hypospadias, duration of surgery, and hospitalization, and postoperative complications were analyzed.
Results: The mean age of the 122 patients was 4.8±3.7 years. The type of surgery performed was tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (Snodgrass) in 90 (73.8%) and meatal advancement and glanuloplasty (MAGPI) in 32 (26.2%) children. Sixteen (13.1%) children had postoperative complications, all of which were UCF. No statistical association was found between postoperative UCF and patient variables.
The most common complication of hypospadias repair is UCF, which occurs mostly in the immediate postoperative period.
Conclusion: Hypospadias repair can result in complications. UCF remains a significant problem in the postoperative period. All patients underwent caudal block and despite the previous literature, we experienced lower rates of penile engorgement and postoperative UCF. These results showed that there was no cause-and-effect relationship between the caudal block and UCF. We think that the development of a urethrocutaneous fistula is mostly related to surgical causes and well-designed, prospective, and controlled studies are required to elucidate this issue.