Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common urological complaint among children. The most common cause of obstructive airway disease in children is enlarged tonsils and adenoids. Although the relationship between the presence of NE and sleep disorders is unclear, some studies show that enuresis improves after airway obstruction is resolved. We aimed to investigate the relationship between upper airway obstruction and NE in children.

Methods: Between September 2020 and June 2021, 66 pediatric patients diagnosed with persistent NE were included in the study. A total of 57 healthy patients were included in the control group. The presence of snoring and apnea, the presence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/social adjustment disorder, academic achievement, and family members’ history of NE were asked through questionnaires filled out by the families. An upper airway examination was done with a flexible nasopharyngoscope.

Results: The mean ages of the study patients and healthy controls were 8.32±2.1 and 8.18±2.3 years. The female/male ratio was (25/41) and (33/24), respectively. Of the case group, 62.1% were male, and 78.8% were under nine years old. The frequency of snoring/apnea in children with enuresis was 27.3%, while it was 19.3% in the control group (p=0.299). It was found that more enuresis developed in children with high BMI (p=0.044). Family history was higher in the NE group than in the control group, but it was not statistically significant (p=0.173).

Conclusion: Nocturnal enuresis is commonly associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Upper airway obstruction, obesity, and male gender are important risk factors for NE.

Keywords: Adenoid Vegetation, Children, Nocturnal Enuresis, Tonsillar Hypertrophy, Upper Airway Obstruction

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Kol A, Günizi H, Genç Ş. Upper airway obstruction and nocturnal enuresis in children: Why is it important?. Trends in Pediatrics. 2024;5(2):33-7. https://doi.org/10.59213/TP.2024.118


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