Author Guidelines

Checklist for Authors

  • Make sure that name of the author (s), information about the institution, thank you for a letter about the ethics committee etc., are not included in the study. This issue is important according to the "double-blind review principle" concerning the evaluation process of your work so that it can be dealt with impartially.
  • You should not forget that your study will be subject to plagiarism audit if it is deemed to be adequate and appropriate in terms of the subject, and you should avoid making quotations that will be covered by plagiarism when preparing the work.
  • If your article is derived from a study, a thesis, abstract of a case report, poster, etc. be sure to cite it in a footnote and specify its date.
  • Please fill out the form and upload it to the system, as you cannot proceed to the next step without uploading the copyright transfer form to your system. It is sufficient to communicate it in the online system. You do not need to communicate this information in printed form.
  • If your work has been returned to you for revision, and you have changed the title and summary of your work, please update it during the preparation of the article.
  • There cannot be any changes in your article once it is published. Therefore, we strongly advise you to examine your article carefully when the last check e-mail is sent to you, and if there are any necessary revisions you have to make, please send them to us before the journal is published.

Manuscript Preparation


Manuscripts are to be submitted via the Journalagent system, the electronic submission website at

Writing rules

Manuscripts must adhere to the American Medical Association's (AMA) Manual of Style, as well as additional layout and length guidelines, outlined below, using the default settings in Microsoft Word (or other word processing software) for font size and margins (e.g., 12 point font, Times New Roman or Arial, 1" margins, double-spaced). Manuscripts in other formats (e.g. pdf format) will not be accepted and will be sent back to the authors.

All text should conform to standard American English style and usage. Authors for whom English is not their native language are strongly encouraged to seek the aid of a professional English language medical editing service. Although Trends in Pediatrics does not endorse any particular English language editing services, many are available online to edit your manuscript for a fee.

Each page should be numbered. Do not include line numbers.

Title Page

The title page must include the authors' names, highest academic degrees/titles, and the full address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address of the corresponding author. Also, total word count and number of the tables and figures should be included.

Abstract: It should not exceed 300 words for original articles and 150 words for case reports. It should be structured as follows (only for original articles):

  • Objective: The primary and main purpose of the article,
  • Method: sources of data , outline of the study, patients or study participants, interviews / evaluations and basic measurements,
  • Results: main findings,
  • Conclusion: direct clinical applications, and conclusions should be stated.
    The summary should provide information about the basis of the study and include the purpose of the study, the basic procedures (selection of cases or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), the main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance if possible) and key conclusions. New and important aspects of the study or observations should be specified.

Since the summaries are the most obvious part of an article logged in many electronic databases, the authors should make sure that the summary accurately reflects the content of the article.

  • Keywords : In all kinds of manuscripts a total of 3-10 words should be given on the page under the abstract. The terms in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of Index Medicus should be used as keywords. For Turkish keywords please check Türkiye Bilim Terimleri.

Original Articles

Original research articles should have the following sections: Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and References.


The importance of the subject, the relevant history and the studies performed to date, the hypothesis and the purpose of the study should be mentioned. In the introduction section the basis or context of the study (for example, the nature and importance of the problem), its specific objectives or the hypotheses tested in the study should be specified. Both primary and secondary objectives should be clearly stated and all determined subgroup analyzes should be explained. Only truly relevant sources should be cited and data or results of the study should not be mentioned.

Material and Methods

The methodology section should include sources of data, study hypothesis, patients or participants, scales, interviews / evaluations and basic measurements, procedures and statistical methods. The ‘Method’ section should contain only known information when writing the plan or protocol of the study; All data obtained during the study should be given in the ‘Results’ section.

Selection and Identification of Cases

The selection of the participants in the observational or experimental study (patients, animals, controls), source population, study inclusion and exclusion criteria should be explicitly defined. Since the relationship of variables such as age and gender to the purpose of the study is not always clear, the authors should explain their use in the study report. For example, the authors should explain why only a certain age group is included in the study or why women are excluded from the study. It should be clearly stated why and how the study was performed.

Authors should explain how they measure and validate the variables of ethnicity or race in case they used in their manuscript.

Technical Information

In order for other workers to repeat the results, The method, and the tools used (by specifying the manufacturing firm and its address within a paragraph) should be specified in sufficient detail to allow repeatability of the results by other researchers. For previously known and used methods (including statistical methods), the source should be cited.

The source of the not well-known method cited from a publication should be given and the method should be explained. New or significantly modified methods should be defined, the reasons for their use should be specified and their limitations should be evaluated. All the drugs and chemicals used should be accurately described and their generic names, doses, and modes of use should be indicated.

Authors submitting review papers should indicate the methods of finding, selecting, separating and synthesizing the data. These methods should be also included in the abstract section.


The statistical method should be specified in detail where a knowledgeable reader who can access the original data can confirm the reported results. If possible, the findings should be quantified and error measurements (such as confidence intervals) should be presented. The purely statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of p values, which do not yield effect size, should not be used. The references related to the study design and statistical methods should be cited from standard sources whenever possible by specifying relevant pages. Statistical terms, abbreviations, and most of the symbols should be defined. The statistical softwares used should be specified.

explain which statistical tool you are using

  • Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software version 19 (IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.)
  • Statistical analyses and graphics were performed using NCSS 11 Statistical Software (NCSS, LLC, Kaysville, Utah, USA)
  • Statistical analyses were performed using MedCalc for Windows, version 15.0 (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium)

specify how descriptive statistics are presented

  • Categorical data were presented with n and %, and numerical data with mean ± standard deviation.
  • Data were presented with n (%) for categorical data, and mean ± standard deviation for numerical data.
  • Categorical data were presented with n and %, and numerical data with mean ± standard deviation if normally distributed, and median (IQR) if non-normally distributed.

explain which analytical statistical methods are used

testing for normality

  • Descriptive statistics (kurtosis and skewness), visual methods (histogram), and analytical tests (D'Agostino test) was used to determine the normal distribution of numerical variables. In the comparison of 2 groups, student t test was used if the data was normally distributed, and Mann Whitney U test was used if the data were non-normally distributed.

Tests for categorical data

  • Chi-square tests were used for comparison of categorical data (Fisher's exact test was used when chi square test assumptions do not hold due to low expected cell counts).

Tests for numeric data

  • In the comparison of independent 2 groups, student t test was used if the data was normally distributed, and Mann Whitney U test was used if the data were non-normally distributed.
  • In the comparison of dependent 2 groups, paired t test was used if the data was normally distributed, and Wilcoxon test was used if the data were non-normally distributed.
  • In the comparison of independent 3 or more groups, ANOVA was used if the data was normally distributed (when an overall significance was observed, pairwise post-hoc tests were performed Tukey's test if variances were homogeneity, Games-Howell test if variances were not homogeneity), and Kruskal Wallis test was used if the data were non-normally distributed when an overall significance was observed, pairwise post-hoc tests were performed Dunn's test).
  • In the comparison of dependent 3 or more groups, repeated measures ANOVA was used if the data was normally distributed, and Friedman test was used if the data were non-normally distributed.
  • Pearson correlation was used if the data was normally distributed, and Spearman correlation test was used if the data were non-normally distributed.


  • Possible factors determined by univariate analysis were analysed by logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors


  • The Bland-Altman method was used to analyze the differences between … and …
  • Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used predicting presence of ... Cut-off value was calculated and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined.

specify the type I error level

  • Type I error was determined as 5%
  • Type I error was determined as 5% and a p value was<0.05 was considered statistically significant


The main results should be given in full, supported by statistical data, and these results should also be illustrated with appropriate tables, graphics and figures. Results should be given in the logical order in the text, tables and figures, and the most important results should be prioritized. All data in the tables and figures should not be included in the main text of the manuscript, and only important points should be emphasized. While summarizing the data in the ‘Results’ section, the numerical data should not be only be expressed in the form of derivatives (e.g. percentages) but also in absolute terms and the method of analysis used should be specified. Only figures and tables supporting the main idea of the article should be included in this section. Use of graphics instead of very large tables should be tried, and the same data should not be repeated in charts and tables.


In the discussion section, the data obtained from that study, findings and results that support and do not support the hypothesis should be discussed in line with the established hypothesis, and these findings and results should be compared with those of similar studies in the literature and if differences, exist then they should be explained. New and important aspects of the study and their results should be emphasized. The information and data given in the ‘Introduction’ or ‘Results’ section should not be repeated. For experimental studies, it is useful to start the discussion by briefly summarizing the results, then scrutinize possible mechanisms or explanations, compare the findings with those of previous studies, summarize the limitations of the study, and indicate their applications for future studies and clinical practice.


Conclusions acquired should be compared with the purpose of the study, but inferences that are not sufficiently supported by the findings obtained should be avoided. Authors should refrain from commenting on economic interests or benefits in particular if their data do not also include economic data and analysis. When necessary, new hypotheses should be put forward, but it should be stated that these are new hypotheses.

Case Reports

Case reports should present cases which are rarely seen, feature novelty in diagnosis and treatment, and contribute to our current knowledge. The first page should include the title in English, an unstructured summary not exceeding 150 words, and key words. The main text should consist of introduction, case report, discussion and references. The entire text should not exceed 2000 words (A4, formatted as specified above). A maximum of 15 references shall be used in case reports.

Review Articles

Review articles can address any aspect of clinical or laboratory pediatry. Review articles must provide critical analyses of contemporary evidence and provide directions for future research. The journal only accepts and publishes invited reviews.

The first chapter should include the title in English, an unstructured summary and key words. Source of all citations should be indicated. The entire text should not exceed 5000 words.

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor should be short commentaries related to current developments in pediatrics and their scientific and social aspects, or may be submitted to ask questions or offer further contributions in response to work that has been published in the Journal. Letters do not include a title or an abstract; they should not exceed 1.000 words and can have up to 5 references.

Word count limits

Total word count should be limited to:

  • 2000 words for Case reports
  • 1000 words for Letters to the editor
  • 3500 words for Original articles and
  • 5000 words for Review articles

Letters of criticism or evaluation regarding an article published in Trends in Pediatrics must have been received within 12 weeks of the publication of the article.


All Tables, Graphics and Figures should be numbered according to their sequence in the text of the manuscript.


The tables effectively display the information and also ensure that the information is provided in all desired levels of detail. Providing information in tables rather than text generally shortens the length of the text.

Each table should be printed on a separate page with double spacing. The tables should be numbered according to their order in the text, and each one should contain a short title. In MS Word 2000 and above versions, tables should be prepared according to the "table classic 1" or "table simple 1" options in the automatic table option. Do not use any other vertical and horizontal lines inside the table, except for the header, the top and bottom lines. A title should be given to each column. Authors should make explanations in footnotes, not in titles. All non-standard abbreviations should be explained in footnotes. The following symbols should be used for footnotes, respectively

Statistical measurements of the variation, such as standard deviation or standard error, should be indicated. It should be ensured that reference is made to each table in the text. If data from another published or unpublished source are used, the cited source should be fully informed before its permission is obtained.

Tables with a lot of data (backup) take up a lot of space and can only be suitable for electronic publications or they can be provided directly to the readers by the authors. In such a case, an appropriate expssion should be added to the text. Such tables should be submitted with the article for the evaluation by reviewer.


Figures should be drawn professionally and sent digitally in photographic quality. In electronic versions such as JPEG or GIF of the figures, electronic files should be sent in formats that will create high resolution images and the authors should check the image quality of these files on the computer screen before submitting them.

Figures should be as understandable as possible by themselves. Photomicrographic pathology preparations should contain internal scales.

Symbols, arrows or letters should contrast with the background. If human photos are to be used, they should either not be recognized by their photos or their written permission (see ethics section) should be obtained.

All Figures should be numbered according to their sequence in the text of the manuscript. If a previously published figure is to be used, permission must be obtained from its copyright holder. This permission is required regardless of authorship and publisher, except for public documents. Additional drawings showing the region to be printed make the editor's job easier. Color figures are printed when the editor deems necessary or only if the author covers the additional cost.

All Figures should be at least 5 inches wide; multipaneled Figures should be sized close to the desired dimensions of the printed version. Figures may be provided in a variety of formats. TIFF and JPEG are the best formats, although EPS and PDF also are appropriate for graphs (embed all used fonts). Do not supply Figure files that are optimized for the screen (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG). Line art (black lines on a white background) must be created at a minimum of 1000 dpi, and combination line art (i.e., grayscale) must be created at a minimum of 1200 dpi.

Footnotes of the Figures

Starting from a separate page, table titles and footnotes for the figures are written in single spaced and by specifying which figure they correspond to using Arabic numbers. Each one of the symbols, arrows, numbers or letters used to indicate parts of the figure should be clearly identified in the footnotes. In photomicrographic pathology pparations, the internal scale and staining technique should be explained.


Units of Measurement

Units of length, weight and volume should be reported in metric (meter, kilogram, liter) system and in decimal multiples. Temperatures should be expssed in degrees Celsius, and blood pressures in millimeters of mercury. Both local and International Unit Systems (International System of Units, SI) should be used as measurement units. Drug concentrations are given alternatively in either SI or mass units written in parentheses.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Do not use abbrevation in the title. A list of abbreviations and acronyms that appear >3 times should be included in the manuscript, along with the expansion of each. All abbreviations and acronyms should be expanded, followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses, upon first use in the abstract, as well as in the first use in the body of the manuscript. All subsequent uses, including tables and figures, should use the abbreviation or acronym. Because abbreviations and acronyms are designed to assist readers, they should be limited to those defined in the AMA Manual of Style, those that are commonly used by general pediatricians, and those that shorten the names of study groups.

Acknowledgments Section

The names, degrees, and affiliations, along with any conflicts of interest, funding sources, and industry-relation, of persons who have contributed substantially to a study but do not fulfill the criteria for authorship as outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) are to be listed in the Acknowledgments section, which will be published in the print and/or online version of Trends in Pediatrics. This section should include individuals who provided any writing, editorial, and/or statistical assistance, as well as Department Chairs, "honorary authors," etc. Authors should inform all individuals in the Acknowledgments section that they are being listed on the submission.


References should be numbered in consecutive order in the text, tables, or figures. Use superscript arabic numerals to cite material, e.g.,' The first reference used in a written document is listed as 1 in the reference list. The superscript number' is inserted into the document immediately next to the fact, concept, or quotation being cited. If citing more than one reference at the same point, separate the numbers with commas and no spaces between. References should be ten at the end of the manuscript on a separate page. The author is responsible for the accuracy of references.

Examples of the reference style are given below. Further examples will be found in the articles describing the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Ann Intern Med.1988; 208:258-265, Br Med J. 1988; 296:401-5). The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the Index Medicus.

  • Articles in journals: Anık A, Çatlı G, Abacı A, Böber E. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY): an update. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28:251-63.
  • Articles in journals with 6 or more authors: Topaloglu AK, Reimann F, Guclu M, et al. TAC3 and TACR3 mutations in familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism reveal a key role for Neurokinin B in the central control of reproduction. Nat Genet. 2009;41:354-8.
  • Articles ahead of print: Anık A, Anık A, Uysal P. Assessment of Pulmonary Function by Impulse Oscillometry and Spirometry in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 Aug 8. doi: 10.1002/ppul.25019. Epub ahead of print.
  • Articles in online only journals: Labandeira CC, Kustatscher E, Wappler T. Floral assemblages and patterns of insect herbivory during the permian to triassic of Northeastern Italy. PloS One 2016 Nov 9;11:e0165205.
  • Editorial: Arélin M, Beblo S. Newborn screening of metabolic disorders. [Editorial] . J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2016;29:1-3.
  • Letter to the Editor: Weykamp C, Kuypers A, Bakkeren D, Franck P, Loon Dv, Gunnewiek JK, et al. Creatinine, Jaffe, and glucose: another inconvenient truth [Letter]. Clin Chem Lab Med 2015;53:e347-9.
  • Supplements: Ploder M, Schroecksnadel K, Spittler A, Neurauter G, Roth E, Fuchs D. Moderate hyperhomocysteinema in trauma and sepsis indicates poor survival. Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:Suppl:S187.
  • Book Chapters: Darendeliler F. Growth Hormone Treatment in Rare Disorders: The KIGS Experience. In: Ranke MB, Price DA, Reiter EO (eds). Growth Hormone Therapy in Pediatrics: 20 Years of KIGS. Basel, Karger, 2007;213-39.
  • Books: Practical Endocrinology and Diabetes in Children. Raine JE, Donaldson MDC, Gregory JW, Savage MO. London, Blackwell Science, 2001;37-60.
  • Website: World Health Organization. WHO information for laboratory diagnosis of pandemic (strongN1) 2009 virus in humans update. Available at: Accessed: 6 Nov 2009.

Susmission and Retraction of the Manuscripts

Submission of a manuscript: Authors who want to submit their articles for evaluation in our journal can upload their works by following the steps in the system after logging it into our journal management system at Paying attention to the items in the checklist for authors prior to uploading will speed up the publication process of your work.

Article Withdrawal: As per our publication policies, the author of the article has to cooperate with editor of the journal in withdrawal procedures.

The author, who wants to withdraw his / her work during the evaluation process, should submit the petition containing his / her rationale to the editorial board electronically or in a printed wet signed form indicating that all authors have approved the withdrawal.

The Editorial Board scrutinizes the incoming request and returns to the author within ten days. If the copyright of the article was transferred to the Aydın Pediatric Society during submissİon process, the author can not send the work to another journal for evaluation unless the request for withdrawal of this work is approved.